Towards Adhesive-Free Timber Buildings (AFTB)
Adhesive-Free Timber Buildings addresses the wasteful and harmful use of toxic adhesives in the manufacturing of Engineered Wood Products (EWPs) by the construction industry.
Providing confidence in the structural properties of adhesive-free EWPs, using compressed wood is the key to this market uptake.
University, industry and the public sector will co-operate to demonstrate new adhesive-free EWPs using new technology, encouraging and enabling market uptake across North West Europe (NWE).
The project will move the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) from 4 to 7.
More than 5 million m3 of EWPs were produced in the EU in 2013/14 and the market is growing, as EWPs provide a "green" alternative to steel and concrete in construction. In the long-term, the project aims to result in the production of 1 million m3 of adhesive free products and remove 6000 tonnes of the toxic adhesives currently used in manufacturing. The adhesive-free products will be 100% reusable and recyclable. This will have a positive impact in North West Europe where the majority of EWPs go to landfill or incineration contributing to the 15 million tonnes of timber construction waste in landfill across Europe each year. In the long term, the project aims to result in the reduction of EWPs to landfill by 0.5 million tonnes at end of life.
Adhesive-Free Timber Buildings will support ten NWE businesses to adopt the new technology and produce a range of adhesive free EWPs. This will have additional benefits leading to competitive advantage, economic growth and sustainable jobs. The new technology will also contribute to the sustainable management of forests in NWE and connected rural livelihoods by adding value to locally available low-quality timber.
The advocacy, influencing and business support activity undertaken in the Long-Term Effects work package will sustain these positive impacts after the project has ended.
Follow us on Twitter @AFTbuildings
National University of Ireland, Galway
1 University Road
Université de Lorraine
34 Cours Leopold
CS 25233 54052
Technische Universität Dresden
Luxembourg Institute of Science and Technology
1 rue du Brill
Office économique wallon du bois
4 ZI Aye, Rue de la Croissance
University of Liverpool
765 Brownlow Hill
|University of Liverpool||Zhongwei Guan||
765 Brownlow Hill
|National University of Ireland, Galway||Annette Hartefirstname.lastname@example.org||Ireland|
|Université de Lorraine||Marc Oudjeneemail@example.com||France|
|Technische Universität Dresden||Siavash Mahjourian Namari||Siavash.Namari@tu-dresden.de||Germany|
|Luxembourg Institute of Science and Technology||Belouettar Salimfirstname.lastname@example.org||Luxembourg|
|Office économique wallon du bois||François Deneufbourgemail@example.com||Belgium|
11/06/2019 - Visit to National Composites Centre (NCC), Bristol
Dr Sotayo visited the National Composites Centre (NCC) in Bristol on a tour of the facilities with Neil Appleton (Market Development Lead and construction expert) and discussed the AFTB technology especially the option of increasing the production of compressed wood dowels and plates with their 1800 ton and 3600-ton hydraulic press. Dr Sotayo and Neil Appleton also discussed modern timber construction technologies, with the aim of identifying future collaborations between the NCC and University of Liverpool.
The NCC is an independent, open-access national centre that delivers world-class innovation in the design and rapid manufacture of composites and facilitates their widespread industrial exploitation. Also, NCC provides manufacturing facilities at an industrial scale and rapid manufacturing processes capable of building prototypes to validate design concepts.
Pictured: Dr Sotayo with Neil Appleton (Market Development Lead in Construction) and Jamie at the National Composites Centre (NCC) – Bristol
30/05/2019 - National Forestry Conference 2019, Ireland
The Timber Engineering Research Group of the National University of Ireland Galway participated in 2019 National Forestry Conference held at Johnstown, Enfield, Co. Meath, Ireland. The event provided a platform for key stakeholders to discuss the role of forestry and timber construction in climate change mitigation. Dr. Annette Harte, Sameer Mehra and Dr. Conan O’Ceallaigh discussed the ongoing development of AFTB project with the delegates of the conference and distributed project brochures and technical notes to interested participants.
Picture (Left to Right): Sameer Mehra, PhD Researcher National University of Ireland Galway; Andrew Doyle TD, Minister of State for Food, Forestry and Horticulture, Ireland; Mairi Gougeon MSP, Minister for Rural Affairs and Natural Environment, Scotland; Dr. Annette M. Harte, Senior Lecturer National University of Ireland Galway.
21/05/2019 - Solid Wood Solutions, London
The Timber Engineering Research Group of the National University of Ireland Galway exhibited at Solid Wood Solutions 2019 in London on the 21st of May 2019. Solid Wood Solutions, which was attended by architects, building professionals, engineers, researchers and policymakers, shines a spotlight on pioneering timber projects through informative case studies presented by those who conceived and developed the buildings that are gaining global attention. This event presented a great opportunity to gain insight and network with those who are shaping the future of the engineered timber industry. Dr. Annette Harte, Sameer Mehra and Dr. Conan O’Ceallaigh discussed the ongoing research within the AFTB project with many delegates from the event. Project brochures and technical notes were distributed to participants.
09/05/2019 - Fête de l’Europe
Dr. Ahmed Makradi was invited by the Interreg program contact point at Luxembourg Nicole Skirde-Vural, to present the objectives of the Adhesive Free Timber Building project and the ongoing research activities on adhesive free timber structural elements. Fête de l’Europe, which took place on the 9th of May 2019 in Luxembourg, was attended by approximately 500 people.
Pictured (Left to Right): Nicole Skirde-Vural, Interreg Program Contact Point and Dr. Ahmed Makradi.
State of the Art & Objectives
On Friday, 26th April 2019, the AFTB members presented the findings of the project to date to timber construction companies, architects, engineers and others in a practical way.
Since 2016, the European Union has been supporting and promoting the Adhesive-Free Timber Buildings (AFTB) project, the goal of which is to build in wood, without steel and glue -in order to preserve the health and environmental benefits of timber construction.
This focused workshop, hosted by AFTB's TU Dresden, in particular Peer Haller, disseminated results and know-how from the first two years to date.
Critically, in terms of future progression and impact, it was an opportunity to learn directly from timber industry stakeholders what research would be most useful to conduct in year 3 of AFTB and in potential future projects.
05/04/2019 - Forum International Bois Construction (FBC2019)
The AFTB partners from Université de Lorraine, Office Economique Wallon du Bois were in attendance at the Forum International Bois Construction (FBC2019), Nancy France from the 3-5th of April 2019. Marc Oudjene (Université de Lorraine) presented the objectives and research on adhesive free timber technology to an audience of approximately 250 building professionals policymakers and students. Also in attendance from Office Economique Wallon du Bois, Estelle Courtois discussed to the ongoing research of the AFTB project with SMEs from Belgium, France, Germany, Luxembourg among other countries in attendance.
Pictured (Left to Right): Marc Oudjene, Université de Lorraine (France), Mme Emmanuelle Cosse, ex-ministre du Logement et de l’Habitat durable (France), Estelle Courtois, Office Economique Wallon du Bois (Belgique).
22/03/2019 - Bois & Habitat 2019
The Adhesive-Free Timber Buildings (AFTB) project was presented at the annual timber fair Bois & Habitat in Namur, Belgium on the 22nd of March 2019. The production of compressed wood in more environment-friendly construction products was a topic that attracted a large audience. In total four technical presentations were given by members of the AFTB project team. Firstly, François Deneufbourg from the Office Economique Wallon du Bois (OEWB) introduced the global context of the project followed by Estelle Courtois from the OEWB who presented the challenges of the project. Professor Marc Oudjene explained the outcomes of the research done by the University of Lorraine and finally, David Fiorelli from the Luxembourg Institute of Science and Technology presented the numerical modelling tools developed together with Ahmed Makradi. The conference provided a questions and answers session which provided an opportunity to engage with and understand the needs of the audience which comprised engineers, product manufacturer, building professionals and members of the general public.
Pictured: Estelle Courtois from the OEWB
AFTB consortium member Luxembourg University of Science and Technology (LIST) is holding a tendering exercise to commission a report on the constraints and opportunities presented by the scaling up of all-timber construction techniques. This work is funded by the towards Adhesive-Free Timber Buildings Project, through ERDF programme Interreg North-West Europe.
AFTB consortium member Luxembourg University of Science and Technology (LIST) is holding a tendering exercise to commission a report on the constraints and opportunities presented by the scaling up of all-timber construction techniques.
This work is funded by the towards Adhesive-Free Timber Buildings Project, through ERDF programme Interreg North-West Europe.
AFTB consortium member Luxembourg University of Science and Technology (LIST) is holding a tendering exercise to commission a report on the constraints and opportunities presented by the scaling up of all-timber construction techniques. Details specification and selection criteria are listed below. The guide budget for the exercise is ca. €10,000 ex VAT, though all submissions will be considered. Payment will be following acceptance of the final report, which is required to be completed by October 1st 2019.
This work is funded by the towards Adhesive-Free Timber Buildings Project, through ERDF programme Interreg North-West Europe.
The report should cover:
A detailed overview of existing all-timber construction methods, defined as those timber methods which do not principally rely on adhesive, and to a lesser extent metal fixings.
These would include Brettstapel and dowel-laminated timber (DLT) panels. Covering:
- Craft-person effort
- Lead times
- Process scheduling
- Environmental impact
- Future recyclability/reusability
- Planning, regulatory issues
• An analysis of the additional costs, complications and benefits of this approach as compared to glulam/CLT construction.
• An analysis of the costs, difficulties and potential market opportunities of incorporating:
- All-timber, semi-ductile connections including highly densified timber plates (laboratory scale data, including on production methods, to be provided by the AFTB project).
- Highly densified timber dowels in dowel laminated beams and panels (laboratory scale data, including on production methods, to be provided by the AFTB project).
The final analysis should also be presented via the framework of a hypothetical construction operation in the North-West European area with a production rate of fifty two or more storey dwellings per year. The intended audience are academics, timber-industry and related professionals, who are expected to have a good knowledge of basic concepts in timber engineering and construction.
The report should be in English and be formatted to a high level such that it can be published online and in print.
Proposals covering content, depth and proposed fees should be submitted by email to Ms Christelle Vergnat, firstname.lastname@example.org by April 1st 2019. The proposals should also include a justification of the expertise of the author(s) and, if possible, an example of their previous work. Please include a conflict of interest statement detailing any financial, professional or business interest related to the topic of the report.
Proposals will be scored against the two criteria below. Proposed cost will also be scored and the three figures aggregated to yield the successful entry:
- Does the scope and depth of the proposal match the description above?
- Does the expertise and past performance of the authors indicate that the product will be of high quality?
All applicants will be notified of their success or otherwise by email by Friday 12th of April.
Any questions may be directed to Dan Bradley, email@example.com.
14/03/2019 - National Construction Summit 2019, Ireland
The Timber Engineering Research Group of the National University of Ireland Galway participated in a 5th National Construction Summit held at Citywest Exhibition Centre Dublin Ireland. The event provided a forum for key stakeholders across the industry to gather and discuss pressing issues and also offered visitors the opportunity to enhance their knowledge and to network in the field of construction, engineering, sustainable buildings, architecture etc. Dr Conan O’Ceallaigh, Adjunct Lecturer and Post-doctoral Researcher, National University of Ireland Galway presented ongoing developments of AFTB project at NUI Galway.
Picture: Dr. Conan O'Ceallaigh, NUI Galway
27/02/2019 - Innovation Hub Meeting, Dublin, Ireland
The Timber Engineering Research Group of the National University of Ireland Galway, gathered with Irelands top timber technology and timber engineering researchers in collaboration with the Department of Food, Agriculture and the Marine (DAFM), Coillte and Enterprise Ireland in Dublin on the 27th February 2019 to discuss the ongoing research with a focus on development in the timber sector and skills challenges. Dr Conan O’Ceallaigh, Adjunct Lecturer and Post-doctoral Researcher, National University of Ireland discussed the potential for adhesive-free engineered wood products with the attendees.
16/11/2018 - Timber Construction Congress, France
Mr. Van Diem THI of the University of Lorraine presented on Friday 16th November 2018 at the Regional Congress of Timber Construction in Jonzac, France. The objective of AFTB project was presented to timber construction companies in attendance and the research ongoing activities in the University of Lorraine, Epinal was presented. Many discussions were exchanged with audience members.
Pictured: M. Van-Diem THI from the University of Lorraine during his presentation.
05/10/2018 - Innovation Hub, Ireland
The Timber Engineering Research Group of the National University of Ireland Galway, gathered with Irelands top timber technology and timber engineering researchers in collaboration with the Department of Food, Agriculture and the Marine (DAFM), Coillte and Enterprise Ireland in Athlone on the 5th of October 2018 to discuss the ongoing research with a focus on development in the timber sector and skills challenges
29/08/2018 - Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine visit to NUI Galway
The members of the Timber Engineering Research Group (TERG), National University of Ireland Galway presented the recent developments on various ongoing projects. The presentations covered a wide range of research topics from silviculture management of forestry plantations to development and utilization of engineered wood products. A presentation on “Recent developments of the project Towards Adhesive Free Timber Buildings” was delivered by Sameer Mehra. AFTB project was promoted to the attendees and brochures were given to interested participants.
Pictured: Dr. Annette Harte with the delegates from DAFM and researchers of Timber Engineering Research Group (TERG)
22/08/2018 - WCTE 2018, Seoul, Rep. of Korea
The AFTB team were in attendance at the World Conference on Timber Engineering 2018 (WCTE 2018) in Seoul, Rep. of Korea from the 20-23 of August. Attended by over 700 participants, WCTE is the world's premier forum for presenting and discussing the latest technical developments and innovations in wood and timber engineering. The ongoing work within the AFTB project was presented at the conference. Four conference articles are now available in the conference proceedings.
21/06/2018 - Forest Industry Innovation Hub, Ireland
The Timber Engineering Research group attended the Forestry Industry Innovation Hub on the 21/6/18 in Athlone, Co. Westmeath. The event was attended by academic staff from Universities and Institutes of technology around Ireland and Forestry experts from the Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine, Enterprise Ireland and Coillte. The function of this Hub is to create collaborative links between industry and the applied research community within Ireland to develop the innovative uses of Irish timber. The ongoing work in the AFTB project was presented.
20/06/2018 - Visit of Trada University Engagement Manager to AFTB Project
The University of Liverpool, AFTB project team were pleased to host Tabitha Binding, the new TRADA University Engagement Manager. Tabitha took a great interest in the project and we will work with her in the future to help disseminate the project achievements.
Pictured:(Left-Right) Dr Ade Sotayo (AFTB Postdoctoral Fellow), Tabitha Binding (TRADA University Engagement Manager), Dr Zhongwei Guan (AFTB Lead Partner PI).
18/04/2018 - AFTB visit Entreprise Weisrock (Glulam Manufacturer)
Marc Oudjene of the Université of Lorraine meets the Weisrock company (glulam manufacturer) to study the possibility of manufacturing curved multi-layered beams using compressed wood dowels, for the UL demonstrator building.
03/04/2018 - Annette Harte presents AFTB to the Master of Architecture Students at UCD
Dr. Annette Harte presented the objectives of the AFTB project to the Master of Architecture Students at University College Dublin (UCD) on 03/04/2018. The possibilities and advantages of engineered timber and in Particular current work on the use of adhesive-free technology was presented to 25+ architectural students.
28/02/2018 - PI Workshop, De Vere Grand Connaught Rooms
Adhesive Free Timber Buildings PI Dr Zhongwei Guan and project manager Dan Bradley attended the Interreg NWE Project Ideas workshop in London this week. Over 150 prospective applicants had gathered to learn more about opportunities in the Interreg research program.
Zainab Agha, the Deputy Director of Policy and Partnership at the Ministry of Housing, Communities and Local Government opened the meeting. Her speech spoke highly of European research cooperation and highlighted the message that, until Brexit occurs, UK partners should be able to fully participate in applying for EU research finding. She mentioned AFTB by name, as an ERDF funded project with a UK lead.
Dr Guan (Pictured) then presented on the topic of AFTB and our experience of the application process, speaking of the importance of transnational cooperation in achieving research aims as well as describing the process by which the project’s outputs were benchmarked against a baseline. He then answered several questions from the audience before participants attended workshops based on the Interreg research themes.
23/02/2018 - Ryan Institute Annual Research Day 2018, NUI Galway, Ireland
The Timber Engineering Research Group (TERG) of National University of Ireland Galway participated in the Ryan Institute Research Day 2018 organised by Ryan Institute, NUIG. The theme of the research day was ‘Sustainability Horizons - Our Common Future’. A wide range of posters were presented by researchers from across Ireland. Members of the TERG presented their ongoing research on engineered wood products and the use of timber in multi-storey construction. The session was used as a platform to showcase and promote the AFTB project.
Pictured: Sameer Mehra, PhD Researcher, National University of Ireland Galway explaining the objectives of his work to members of the audience.
08/02/2018 - Der Spiegel Article on Wood Modification
In a recent interview published in Der Speigel, Prof Peer Haller, Technical University of Dresden, discussed the significant increase in strength of timber elements that can be achieved through wood modification using techniques such as thermal compression.
Follow the link below for further reading
9/12/2017 - AFTB Partner Meeting, UL, Epinal, France
Great progress was made at the AFTB project meeting hosted by Dr Marc Oudjene of the Université Lorraine on the 8th and 9th of December. All project partners presented ongoing work in their respective institutions. This meeting provided a great opportunity to communicate, discuss project goals, collaborate together and focus on achieving the project objectives outlined.
Pictured: AFTB project partners
23/11/2017 - GDR BOIS; Annual GDR3544 Wood Science event in Nantes
Ms. Imane E Houjeyri, M. Tuan Anh Bui, M. Trong Tuan Tran and Dr. Marc Oudjene of the University of Lorraine were very happy to present and introduce, to the scientific and industrial communities, the AFTB project at Annual GDR3544 Wood Science event in Nantes (France). Three posters were held in conjunction with this event where the AFTB project was promoted.
Pictured: Imane E Houjeyri, PhD student from University of Lorraine
13/11/2017 - Cunliffes Limited welcomed to the project as sub-partner
The University of Liverpool AFTB partner are excited to have had their first project meeting with Liverpool-based company, Cunliffes Limited. As architectural adviser, Cunliffes will provide advice and support in the design and construction of a demonstrator building at Ness Botanic Gardens, Ness, UK.
Cunliffes are an ISO 9001 Quality Assured multi-disciplinary private practice offering property and construction consultancy services to private and public sector clients.
Professional services offered include Architectural Design, Project Management, Building Surveying, Quantity Surveying, Employers Agent, Party Wall Surveyor and CDM Principal Designer.
Cunliffes’ clients include schools and colleges, universities, local Diocese and religious orders, museums, community organisations, financial institutions, housing associations, healthcare, financial institutions, developers and private clients.
Cunliffes’ specialise in the education sector and have in-house expertise with particular emphasis on the primary and secondary sectors, Academies and Universities.
31/8/17 - "Talking Timber" Event organised by Teagasc
The Timber Engineering Research Group of National University of Ireland Galway participated in a timber marketing event entitled “Talking Timber” organised by Teagasc with the co-operation of the Irish timber industry and the Forest Service, Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine, Ireland. The event providing opportunities for forest owners to familiarise themselves with the timber sales process, various timber harvesting techniques and added value products such as Glulam and CLT products. A poster exhibition was held in conjunction with the event where the AFTB project was promoted.
14/8/2017 - Industrial Visit to Matthew O'Malley Joinery, Ireland
The Timber Engineering Research Group of the National University of Ireland Galway visited Matthew O’Malley Joinery, Woodford, Co Galway. The aim of the visit was to explore and understand techniques involved in traditional joinery without using adhesives i.e. building construction using treenails and wooden pegs. Objectives and current proceedings of the project had been discussed with the building design professionals and carpenters.
04/7/2017 - 3rd International Conference on Mechanics of Composites, University Alma Mater of Bologna, Italy
Ms. Imane E Houjeyri and Dr. Marc Oudjene of the University of Lorraine were very happy to present and introduce, to the scientific and industrial communities, the AFTB project at the 3rd International Conference on Mechanics of Composites which was held at the University Alma Mater of Bologna, Italy. A poster exhibition was held in conjunction with the event where the AFTB project was promoted.
Melle Imane E Houjeyri et le Mr. Marc Oudjene de l’Université de Lorraine ont eu beaucoup de Plaisir d’introduire et de présenter, aux communautés scientifique et industrielle, le projet Européen AFTB à la 3ème Conférence Internationale «Mechanics of Composites » qui s’est déroulée à l’Université Alma Mater de Bologne, en Italie. Un poster a été présenté lors de cet évènement pour la promotion du projet AFTB.
Pictured (Left-Right): Prof. Antonio J.M. Ferreira, Conference Chair and Editor-in-Chief of Composite Structures (ELSEVIER), University of Porto (Portugal), Ms. Imane El Houjeyri, PhD Researcher, University of Lorraine, Laëtitia Duigou, Institut de Recherche Dupuy de Lôme (France), and Dr. Marc Oudjene, Associate-Professor, University of Lorraine (France).
12/6/2017 - WMCAUS Symposium 2017 in Prague, Czech Republic
The main mission of "World Multidisciplinary Civil Engineering-Architecture-Urban Planning Symposium - WMCAUS" is to lead to contribute in multidisciplinary studies related to Civil Engineering, Architecture, City and Urban Planning and to improve interactions between people within these fields. Dr Zhongwei, of the University of Liverpool, presented the AFTB project to the society of civil engineering, architect and urban planning.
Pictured: Dr. Zhongwei Guan, AFTB Project Lead, University of Liverpool presenting "Towards Adhesive Free Timber Buildings" to the society of civil engineering, architect and urban planning
16/5/2017 - Ministerial Announcement at The National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland
Dr Annette Harte and the Timber Engineering Research Group at The National University of Ireland, Galway were very happy to welcome the Minister of State for Food, Forestry and Horticulture, Andrew Doyle TD to announce a three-year initiative to characterise the strength properties of Irish timber for European regulatory authorities. Dr Harte and PhD Researcher, Sameer Mehra, took the opportunity to explain some of the ongoing work in the research group related to adhesive free engineered wood products under the Interreg NWE funded AFTB Project.
Pictured (Left-Right): Prof. Pól Ó Dochartaigh, Registrar and Deputy-President, NUI Galway, Mr Sameer Mehra, PhD Researcher, NUI Galway, Dr Annette Harte, Vice-Dean of the College of Engineering and Informatics, NUI Galway, and Minister of State for Food, Forestry and Horticulture, Andrew Doyle TD.
No upcoming eventsView more
76 project proposals received in call 9!
Posted on 14-06-2019
The ninth call for project proposals received 76 applications! The Joint Secretariat will now assess them and the Monitoring Committee will decide in September 2019 which of them w... Read more
Interreg North-West Europe and Atlantic Area exchange experiences
Posted on 04-06-2019
The Joint Secretariat (JS) and the Contact Point Network of the Interreg North-West Europe programme visited the premises of its counterpart for the Atlantic Area in Porto, Portuga... Read more
AFTB Project Manager Dan Bradley (lead partner University of Liverpool) on the benefits of adhesive-free timber
Adhesive-Free Timber Buildings Demo. Structure for Épinal, France -AFTB's Marc Oudjene explains why
Future potential for Adhesive-Free Timber Buildings: AFTB's Estelle Courtois a key contact point for timber & construction industry stakeholders
Peer Haller of AFTB - on role & aims of TU Dresden demonstrator
AFTB Research Publications
Development of Adhesive Free Engineered Wood Products - Towards Adhesive Free Timber Buildings
Guan Z., Sotayo A., Oudjene M., El Houjeyri I., Harte A.M., Mehra S., Haller P., Namari S., Makradi A., Belouetter S., Deneufbourg F., (2018) Development of Adhesive Free Engineered Wood Products - Towards Adhesive Free Timber Buildings. In Proceedings of the WCTE 2018 - World Conference on Timber Engineering, Seoul, Rep. of Korea, August 20-23, 2018 Download
Evaluation of the Structural Behaviour of Beam-beam Connection Systems using Compressed Wood Dowels and Plates
Mehra S., O’Ceallaigh C., Lakzaeian F.H., Guan Z., Sotayo A., Harte A.M., (2018) Evaluation of the Structural Behaviour of Beam-beam Connection Systems using Compressed Wood Dowels and Plates. In Proceedings of the WCTE 2018 - World Conference on Timber Engineering, Seoul, Rep. of Korea, August 20-23, 2018 Download
An Investigation of the Structural Behaviour of Beam-beam Connections Systems Utilising Compressed Wood Dowels and Plates
Mehra S., O’Ceallaigh C., Guan Z., Sotayo A., Harte A.M., (2018) An Investigation of the Structural Behaviour of Beam-beam Connections Systems Utilising Compressed Wood Dowels and Plates. In Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Composite Structures (ICCS21), University of Bologna, Italy, 2018 Download
Finite Element Modelling and Testing of Timber Laminated Beams Fastened with Compressed Wood Dowels
Sotayo A., Au S-K., Guan Z., (2018) Finite Element Modelling and Testing of Timber Laminated Beams Fastened with Compressed Wood Dowels. In Proceedings of the WCTE 2018 - World Conference on Timber Engineering, Seoul, Rep. of Korea, August 20-23, 2018 Download